Probably the most widely used irrigation head; pop-ups are typically used for residential and small commercial sprinkler systems. There are two types of pop-up heads; stationary sprays and rotating heads, called rotors. Pop-up spray heads are designed to supply a continuous stream of water, and are fitted with a nozzle. There are nozzles in a variety of designs; each design is for a specific spray pattern, such as a full arc, a half-circle, or a quarter circle. Nozzles are used to distribute water in a variety of patterns to fit the contours of the landscape. Other than a pop-up stem, pop-up spray heads are stationary, and are inexpensive and simple to operate.
Pop-up sprinkler bodies range in height from 2 to 20 inches. Two-inch pop-ups are common in areas with tough soil where digging is difficult. Four-inch pop-ups are commonly used in turf areas; the current standard for mowing height in lawn areas is about three inches – a four-inch pop-up provides sufficient clearance for a growing lawn and for sinking – it is common for sprinkler heads to “settle” over time as soil and thatch build up around the sprinkler head. Six to twelve-inch pop-ups can be used to irrigate ground cover, gardens, and shrub borders; risers can be installed under spray heads as the landscape grows and greater clearance is needed.
Pop-up spray heads are designed to cover relatively small areas with spray radii between 3 and 15 feet, and an operating pressure between 15 and 30 psi. The precipitation rate of fixed spray heads is dependent on system pressure, spray head spacing, manufacturer specs, and nozzle size, and varies from 1 to 2.5 inches per hour.
Manufacturers are continually improving pop-ups: features such as matched precipitation rates, adjustable and low trajectory nozzles, and nozzles with square spacing and strips are some of the more recent contributions to sprinkler efficiency. Several manufacturers have even developed nozzles that convert a pop-up spray head to a rotor capable of covering distances ranging from 8 to 30 feet. The advantage of these nozzles is that they reduce the precipitation rate, which improves water absorption and reduces run-off.
This article comes from sprinkler-warehouse edit released